Good! Now you can convert numbers into integers while creating. But what if you want to convert specific results? Putting L will not help and raise an error, like in the example below.

Surely, not what we were wanted to do.

R provides us with very simple and convenient functions to convert variables/values into different formats. These are as.double(), as.integer(), as.complex(). See, the functions' names are intuitive!

There is a 'hierarchy' within numerical types, i.e., each integer number can be converted into double and complex, and each double can be converted into complex. Complex numbers can not be converted into either double, either integer type (unless the imaginary part is 0). double numbers can be converted into integer, but this will not round, but truncate to integer part.

Try these functions by yourself!


  1. Convert the number 9.85 into integer.
  2. Convert the number 23.8 into complex.
  3. Convert the integer number 42 created by using L into double.

Everything was clear?

Section 2. Chapter 4
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