Course Content

R Introduction: Part I

## R Introduction: Part I

# Type Conversion

Indeed, while you can directly create **integers** in R by appending `L`

to a number, converting existing values to integers requires a different approach. Simply appending `L`

will cause an error, as demonstrated in the example below:

`# Some number num <- 20 numL # Trying using L for converting`

Certainly, that did not achieve the intended result.

Luckily, R simplifies the conversion process with straightforward functions like `as.double()`

, `as.integer()`

, and `as.complex()`

. The function names are quite self-explanatory!

Numerical types follow a sort of 'hierarchy' where each `integer`

can be converted to a `double`

or a `complex`

number, and each `double`

can become a `complex`

number. However, converting a `double`

to an `integer`

will result in **truncation**, not rounding, of the number to its integer component.

Give these functions a try!

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.

Everything was clear?

# Type Conversion

Indeed, while you can directly create **integers** in R by appending `L`

to a number, converting existing values to integers requires a different approach. Simply appending `L`

will cause an error, as demonstrated in the example below:

`# Some number num <- 20 numL # Trying using L for converting`

Certainly, that did not achieve the intended result.

Luckily, R simplifies the conversion process with straightforward functions like `as.double()`

, `as.integer()`

, and `as.complex()`

. The function names are quite self-explanatory!

Numerical types follow a sort of 'hierarchy' where each `integer`

can be converted to a `double`

or a `complex`

number, and each `double`

can become a `complex`

number. However, converting a `double`

to an `integer`

will result in **truncation**, not rounding, of the number to its integer component.

Give these functions a try!

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.

Everything was clear?

# Type Conversion

Indeed, while you can directly create **integers** in R by appending `L`

to a number, converting existing values to integers requires a different approach. Simply appending `L`

will cause an error, as demonstrated in the example below:

`# Some number num <- 20 numL # Trying using L for converting`

Certainly, that did not achieve the intended result.

Luckily, R simplifies the conversion process with straightforward functions like `as.double()`

, `as.integer()`

, and `as.complex()`

. The function names are quite self-explanatory!

Numerical types follow a sort of 'hierarchy' where each `integer`

can be converted to a `double`

or a `complex`

number, and each `double`

can become a `complex`

number. However, converting a `double`

to an `integer`

will result in **truncation**, not rounding, of the number to its integer component.

Give these functions a try!

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.

Everything was clear?

**integers** in R by appending `L`

to a number, converting existing values to integers requires a different approach. Simply appending `L`

will cause an error, as demonstrated in the example below:

`# Some number num <- 20 numL # Trying using L for converting`

Certainly, that did not achieve the intended result.

`as.double()`

, `as.integer()`

, and `as.complex()`

. The function names are quite self-explanatory!

`integer`

can be converted to a `double`

or a `complex`

number, and each `double`

can become a `complex`

number. However, converting a `double`

to an `integer`

will result in **truncation**, not rounding, of the number to its integer component.

Give these functions a try!

Task

- Convert the number
`9.85`

to an`integer`

. - Convert the
`integer`

`42`

, created with`L`

, to a`double`

.