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Advanced CSS Techniques

What is adaptive/responsive design?What is adaptive/responsive design?

We can not imagine modern web development without adaptive/responsive designs. It allows users to use web sources equally on any device: a smartphone, a tablet, a desktop, or a TV.


How does it work?

  1. Development team defines how each element will look depending on the screen size.
  2. Set the necessary instructions to the code.
  3. Browser tracks the changes of a viewport.
  4. Browser applies the rules that the dev team put in the form of the code.


Media-query is what makes adaptive/responsive designs possible. With the help of these queries, developers can set the styles of any element depending on the screen size.


We can perceive media-query as instructions: "If a user screen is a desktop, apply such styles to the element. If a user screen is a smartphone, apply other styles to the element. And so on.".

The basic syntax of the media-query is as follows:

  1. <media_type> - declares the type of device. Possible values:
    • all - default value. If nothing is specified, the media rule works for all devices.
    • print - the media rule works for the devices that produce printed documents, like printers.
    • screen - the media rule works for all devices with the physical screen.
  2. <media_feature> - declares device characteristics. Most common use:
    • min-width: - the minimum width of the viewport
    • max-width: - the maximum width of the viewport.
  3. <operator> - media-type and media-feature are separated by the optional logical operator. Its values can be: and or ,.


In the following chapters, we will consider using media-queries in practice.

Everything was clear?

Section 5. Chapter 1